Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

Diskutime tek 'Historia Shqiptare' filluar nga kastriot, 24 Feb 2004.

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    Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Mehmet Ali


    Mehmet Ali (or Muhammed Ali etc.) (1769-1849), was a viceroy of Egypt, and is sometimes considered the founder of modern Egypt.

    Mehmet Ali, an Albanian born in Kavala, made himself the ruler of Egypt and treacherously massacred the Mameluke leaders. He introduced sweeping reforms to Egypt. He built an army from Egyptian peasants through conscription, and used this force to greatly expand Egypt's borders. He built much infrastructure such as canals and roadways and established Egypt as one of the world's largest cotton producers. Ali also greatly reformed Egyptian society creating some of the first modern educational institutions. Almost all of his reforms were directed at strengthening Egypt's armed forces, in which he was very successful.

    While throughout his reign he was the nominal vassal of the Ottoman Sultan, he acted independently. While he aided the Sultan in fighting in the Greek War of Indepedence and put down a Wahhabi revolt in Arabia for him, later the two fell out. Under his son Ibraihim Pasha Ali's armies seized Palestine and Syria and were within a few days march of Constantinople. European intervention led to a negotitated solution, however. Ali soon fell out with his son and much of the gains were lost.

    Ali was succeeded by two of his sons, but both were weak rulers, and, in large part because of Ali's excesses, the country fell under the domination of Europeans.


    Mehmet Ali's seizure of power


    The process of Mehmet Ali's seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamelukes, and Albanian mercenaries. It ended in victory for the Albanian's lead by Mehemet Ali.

    The war was a result of the French invasion of Egypt by Napoleon. After the French defeat by the British a power vaccuum was created in Egypt. The Mamelukes had government Egypt before the French invasion and still had much power in the area. Egypt was officially a part of the Ottoman Empire and Egypt still had many Turkish troops that were sent to evict the French. Many of the best troops were from Albania, then a province of the Ottoman Empire.


    Albanians under Thir seize Cairo
    In March 1803 the British evacuated Alexandria leaving power vacuum in Egypt. Mahommed Bey al-Alfi accompanied the English to lobby them to help restore the power of the Mamelukes. In their attmpts to return to power the Mamelukes took Minia and interrupted communication between Upper and Lower Egypt.

    About six weeks after, the Arnaut (or Albanian) soldiers in the service of the Ottoman Empire tumultuously demanded their pay, and surrounded the house of the defterdr (or finance minister), who in vain appealed to the pasha to satisfy their claims.

    The pasha opened fire from the artillery of his palace on the insurgent soldiers who had taken the house of the defterdgr, which was across the Ezbekia from the palace. The citizens of Cairo, accustomed to such occurrences, immediately closed their shops, and every man who possessed any weapon armed himself. The tumult in the city continued all the day, and the next morning a body of troops sent out by the pasha failed to quell it.

    Thir, the commander of the Albanians, then repaired to the citadel of Cairo, gained admittance through an embrasure, and, having obtained possession of it, began to cannonade the pasha over the roofs of the intervening houses, and then descended with guns to the Ezbekia and laid close siege to the palace.

    On the following day Ottoman commander Mahommed Khosrev made good his escape, with his women and servants and his regular troops, and fled to Damietta by river.

    Thir Pasha assumed the government, but in twenty-three days he met with his death from exactly the same cause as that of the overthrow of his predecessor. He refused to pay some of the Turkish troops, and was immediately assassinated. A desperate conflict ensued between the Albanians and Turks and the palace was set on fire and plundered.


    Ahmed Pasha and the Turks agains the Albanians and Mamelukes

    The masters of Egypt were now split into these two factions, animated with the fiercest animosity against each other. Mehemet Ali, then in command of an Albanian regiment, became the head of the Albanians, but his party was the weaker, and he therefore entered into an alliance with the Mameluke leaders Ibrahim Bey and Osman Bey al-Bardisi. This revolt marks the beginning of the breach between the Albanians and Turks, which ultimately led to the expulsion of the latter, and of the rise to power of the Albanian Mehemet Ali, who would go on to rule the country for nearly forty years.

    Ahmed Pasha, who was in the region to become a governor of one of the Arabian provinces was quickly appointed pasha by the Ottomen, through the influence of the Turks and the favor of the sheiks. But Mehemet Ali, who with his Albanians still held the citadel of Cairo and refused to assent to their choice. Meanwhile the Mamelukes moved from El-Giza, whither they had been invited by Thir Pasha and allied themselves with the Albanians.

    Ahmed Pasha betook himself to the mosque of al-Zflhir, which the French had converted into a fortress. But he was compelled to surrender by the Albanians. The Turkish leaders who had killed Thir Pasha were captured with him and put to death by the Albanians. Ahmed was detained a prisoner.


    Ali Pasha Jazirli in cmmand of the Turks

    In consequence of the alliance between Mehemet Ali and al-Bardisi, the Albanians gave the citadel over to the Mamelukes; and soon after, these allies marched against Khosrev Pasha. Khosrev had been joined by a considerable body of Turks and was in a well fortified posistion in Damietta. After much loss on both sides, he was taken prisoner and brought to Cairo by the Albanins. The victorious soldiery sacked the town of Damietta, but Khosrev was treated with respect.

    A few days later, Ali Pasha Jazirli landed at Alexandria with an imperial firman making him pasha of Egypt and he took control of the Turkish forces. He threatened the beys, who now were virtual masters of Upper Egypt, as well as of the capital and nearly the whole of Lower Egypt. Mehemet Ali and al-Bardisi therefore descended to Rosetta, which had fallen into the hands of a brother of Ali Pasha. The town and its commander was successfully cpautred by al-Bardisi, who then proposed to proceed against Alexandria, but his troops demanded arrears of pay which he was unable to give. During this delay the Ali Pasha had ordered destroyed cut the dykes between the lakes of Aboukir and Mareotis, thus rendering the approach to Alexandria more difficult. Al-Bardisi and Mehemet Ali therefore returned to Cairo.

    The troubles of Egypt were now increased by an insufficient flood of the Nile, and great scarcity prevailed, aggravated by the taxation to which the beys were compelled to resort in order to pay their troops. Riots and violence continued in the capital, with much of the soldiery being under little or no control.

    Meanwhile,, Ali Pasha, who had been behaving with violence towards the French in Alexandria, received a halt-isherif from the sultan, which he sent by his secretary to Cairo. It announced that the beys should live peaceably in Egypt, with an annual pension each of fifteen purses and other privileges, but that the government should be in the hands of the pasha. To this the beys assented, but with considerable misgivings; for they had intercepted letters from Ali to the Albanians, endeavouring to alienate them from their side to his own. Ali was induced to advance towards Cairo at the head of 3000 men to discuss peace. The forces of the beys, with the Albanians, encamped near, Ali Pasha at Shalakan, and Ali fell back on a place called Zufeyta.

    The Albanians seized Ali Pasha's boats conveying soldiers, servants, and his ammunition and baggage; and, following him, they demanded why he brought with him so numerous a body of men, in opposition to usage and to their previous warning. Finding they would not allow his troops to advance, forbidden himself to retreat with them to Alexandria, and being surrounded by the enemy, he would have hazarded a battle, but his men refused to fight. He therefore went to the camp of the beys, and his army was compelled to retire to Syria.

    In the hands of the beys Ali Pasha again attempted treachery. A horseman was seen to leave his tent one night at full gallop; he was the bearer of a letter to Osman Bey Hasan, the governor of Kine. This offered a fair pretext to the Mamelukes to rid themselves of a man proved to be a perfidious tyrant. He was sent under a guard of forty-five men towards the Syrian frontier; and about a week after, news was received that in a skirmish with some of his own soldiers he had fallen mortally wounded.


    Return of al-Alfi

    The death of Ali Pasha produced only temporary tranquillity. In a few days (February 12, 1804) the return of Mahommed Bey al-Alfi (called the Great) from England caunsed fresh disturbances, which, by splitting the Mamelukes into two parties, accelerated their final overthrow.

    An ancient jealousy existed between al-Alfi and the other most powerful bey, al-Bardisi. The latter was now supreme among the Mamelukes, and this fact considerably heightened their old enmity. While the guns of the citadel, those at Old Cairo, and even those of the palace of al-Bardisi, were thrice fired in honor of al-Alfi, preparations were immediately begun to oppose him.

    His partisans were collected opposite Cairo, and al-Alfi held Giza; but treachery was among them; Husain Bey (a relative of al-Alfi) was assassinated by emissaries of al-Bardisi, and Mehemet Ali, with his Albanians, gained possession of Giza, which was, as usual, given over to the troops to pillage. In the meanwhile al-Alfi the Great embarked at Rosetta, and not apprehending opposition, was on his way to Cairo, when a little south of the town of Manfif he encountered a party of Albanians, and with difficulty made his escape.

    He gained the eastern branch of the Nile, but the river had become dangerous, and he fled to the desert. There he had several hairbreadth escapes, and at last secreted himself among a tribe of Arabs at Ras al-Wgdi.


    Al-Bardisi and the Albanisn fall out

    Al-Bardisi's fortunes began to decline, however, in order to satisfy the demands of the Albanians for their pay he gave orders to levy heavy contributions from the citizens of Cairo; and this new oppression roused them to rebellion. The Albanians, alarmed for their safety, assured the populace that they would not allow the order to collapse, and Mehemet Ali himself caused a proclamation to be made to that effect.

    Thus the Albanians became the favorites of the people, and took advantage of their opportunity. Three days later (March 12, 1804) they beset the house of the aged Ibrahim Bey, and that of al-Bardisi, both of whom effected their escape with difficulty. The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place.

    Mehemet Ali, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt. For one day and a half he enjoyed the title; the friends of the late Thir Pasha succeeded in killing him and Cairo was again the scene of great violence, the Albanians revelling in the houses of the Mameluk chiefs, whose hareems met with no mercy at their hands. These events were the signal for the reappearance of al-Alfi.

    The Albanians now invited Ahmed Pasha Khorshid to assume the reins of government, and he without delay proceeded from Alexandria to Cairo. The forces of the partisans of al-Bardisi were ravaging the country a few miles south of the capital and intercepting the supplies of corn by the river; a little later they passed to the north of Cairo and successively took Bilbeis and Kalyub, plundering the villages, detroying the crops, and slaughtering the herds of the inhabitants. Cairo was itself in a state of tumult, suffering severely from a scarcity of grain, and the heavy exactions of the pasha to meet the demands of his turbulent troops, at that time augmented by a Turkish detachment. The shops were closed, and the unfortunate people assembled in great crowds, crying Y Latif! Y LatIf! (0 Gracious ) Al-Alfi and Osman Bey Hasan had professed allegiance to the pasha; but they soon after declared against him, and they were now approaching from the south; and having repulsed Mehemet Ali, they took the two fortresses of Tur. These Mehemet Ali speedily retook by night with 4000 infantry and cavalry; but the enterprise was only partially successful. On the following day the other Mamelukes north of the metropolis actually penetrated into the suburbs; but a few days later were defeated in a battle fought at Shubra, with heavy loss on both sides. This reverse in a measure united the two great Mameluke parties, though their chiefs remained at enmity. Al-Bardisi passed to the south of Cairo, and the Mamelukes gradually retreated towards Upper Egypt. Thither the pasha despatched three successive expeditions (one of which was commanded by Mehemet Ali), and many battles were fought, but without decisive result.

    At this period another calamity befell Egypt; about 3000 Dells (Kurdish troops) arrived in Cairo from Syria. These troops had been sent for by KhorshId in order to strengthen himself against the Albanians; and the events of this portion of the history afford sad proof of their ferocity and brutal enormities, in which they far exceeded the ordinary Turkish soldiers and even the Albanians. Their arrival immediately recalled Mehemet Ali and his party from the war, and instead of aiding KhorshId was the proximate cause of his overthrow.

    Cairo was ripe for revolt; the pasha was hated for his tyranny and extortion, and execrated for the deeds of his troops, especially those of the Delis: the sheiks enjoined the people to close their shops, and the soldiers clamoured for pay. At this juncture a firmgn arrived from Constantinople conferring on Mehemet Ali the pashalic of Jedda; but the occurrences of a few days raised him to that of Egypt.

    On the 12th of Safar 1220 (May 12, 1805) the sheiks, with an immense concourse of the inhabitants, assembled in the house of the 1~alI; and the ulema, amid the prayers and cries of the people, wrote a full statement of the wrongs which they had endured under the administration of the pasha. The ulema, in answer, were desired and to go to the citadel; but they were apprised the treachery; and on. the following day, having held another council at the house of the ki4i, they proceeded to Mehemet Ali and informed him that the people would no longer submit to Khorshid. Then whom will ye have? said he. We will have thee, they replied, to govern us according to the laws; for we see in thy countenance that thou art possessed of justice and goodness. Mehemet Ali seemed to hesitate, and then complied, and was at once invested. On this, a bloody struggle began between the two pashas. Khorshld, being informed of the insurrection, immediately prepared to stand a siege in. the citadel. Two chiefs of the Albanians joined his party, but many of his soldiers deserted. Mehemet Alis great strength lay in the devotion of the citizens of Cairo, who looked on him as a deliverer from their afflictions; and great numbers armed themselves, advising constantly with Mehemet Ali, having the sayyid Omar and the sheiks at their head, and guarding the town at night. On the 19th of the same month Mehemet Ali began to besiege Khorshld. After the siege had continued many days, Khorshld gave orders to cannonade and bombard the town.; and for six days his commands were executed with little interruption, the citadel itself also lying between two fires. Mehemet Alis position at this time was very critical:

    His troops became mutinous for their pay; the silhdar, who had commanded one of the expeditions against the Mamelukes, advanced to the relief of Khorshid; and the latter ordered the Dells to march to his assistance. The firing ceased on the Friday, but began again on. the eve of Saturday and lasted until the next Friday. On the clay following (May 28) news came of the arrival at Alexandria of a messenger from Constantinople. The ensuing night in Cairo presented a curious spectacle; many of the inhabitants, believing that this envoy would put an end to their miseries, fired off their weapons as they paraded the streets with bands of music. The silhdgr, imagining the noise to be a fray, marched in haste towards the citadel, while its garrison sallied forth and began throwing up entrenchments in the quarter of Arab al-Yesgr, but were repulsed by the armed inhabitants and the soldiers stationed there; and during all this time the cannonade and bombardment from the citadel, and on it from the batteries on the hill, continued unabated.

    The envoy brought a firmn confirming Mehemet Ali and ordering Khorshid to go to Alexandria, there to await further orders; but this he refused to do, on the ground that he had been appointed by a hatt-i-sherff. The firing ceased on the following day, but the troubles of the granted people were rather increased than assuaged; murders the and robberies were daily committed by the soldiery, the shops were all shut and some of the streets barricaded. While these scenes were being enacted, al-Alfi was besieging Damanhur, and the other beys were returning towards Cairo, Khorshid laving called them to his assistance: but Mehemet Ali forced them to retreat.

    Soon after this, a squadron under the command of the Turkish high admiral arrived at Aboukir Bay, with despatches confirming the former envoy, and authorizing Mehemet Ali to continue to discharge the functions of governor. Khorshid at first refused to yield; but at length, on condition that his troops should be paid, he evacuated the citadel and embarked for Rosetta.

    Mehmet Ali now possessed the title of Governor of Egypt, but beyond the walls of Cairo his authority was everywhere disputed by the beys, who were joined by the army of the silhdr of Khorshid; and many Albanians deserted from his ranks. To replenish his empty coffers he was also compelled to levy exactions, principally from the Copts. An attempt was made to ensnare certain of the beys, who were encamped north of Cairo. On August 17, 1805 the dam of the canal of Cairo was to be cut, and some chiefs of Mehemet Alis party wrote, informing them that he would go forth early on that morning with most of his troops to witness the ceremony, inviting them to enter and seize the city, and, to deceive them, stipulating for a certain sum of money as a reward. The dam, however, was cut early in the preceding night, without any ceremony. On the following morning, these beys, with their Manfelukes, a very numerous body, broke open the gate of the suburb al-Husainia, and gained admittance into the city from the north, through the gate called B~b el-Futl~. They marched along the principal street for some distance, with kettle-drums behind each company, and were received with apparent joy by the citizens. At the mosque called the Ashrafia they separated, one party proceeding to the Azhar and the houses of certain sheiks, and the other continuing along the main street, and through the gate called BI-b Zuwla, where they turned up towards the citadel. Here they were fired on by some soldiers from the houses; and with this signal a terrible massacre began. Falling back towards their companions, they found the bye-streets closed; and in that part of the main thoroughfare called Bain al-Kasrain they were suddenly placed between two fires. Thus shut up in a narrow Street, some sought refuge in the collegiate mosque Barkukia, while the remainder fought their way through their enemies and escaped over the city-wall with the loss of their horses. Two Mamelukes had in the meantime succeeded, by great exertions, in giving the alarm to their comrades in the quarter of the Azhar, who escaped by the eastern gate called Bib al-Ghoraib. A horrible fate awaited those who had shut themselves up in the Barkukia. Having begged for quarter first and surrendered, they were immediately stripped nearly massacre naked, and about fifty were slaughtered on the spot; of the and about the same number were dragged away, with brutal aggravation of their pitiful condition. Among them were four beys, one of whom, driven to madness by Mehmet Alls mockery, asked for a drink of water; his hands were untied that he might take the bottle, but he snatched a dagger from one of the soldiers, rushed at the pasha, and fell covered with wounds. The wretched captives were then chained and left in the court of the pashas house; and on the following morning the heads of their comrades who had perished the day before were skinned and stuffed with straw before their eyes. One bey and two others paid their ransom and were released; the rest, without exception, were tortured and put to death in the course of the ensuing night. Eighty-three heads (many of them those of Frenchmen and Albanians) were stuffed and sent to Constantinople, with a boast that the Mameluke chiefs were utterly destroyed. Thus ended Mehmet Alis first massacre of his too confiding enemies.

    The beys, after this, appear to have despaired of regaining their ascendancy; most of them retreated to Upper Egypt, and an attempt at compromise failed. Al-Alfi offered his submission on the condition of the cession of the Fayum and other provinces; but this was refused, and that chief gained two successive victories over the pashas troops, many of whom deserted to him.

    At length, in consequence of the remonstrances of the English, and a promise made by al-Alfi of 1500 purses, the Porte consented to reinstate the twenty-four beys and to place al-Alfi at their head; but this measure met with the opposition of Mehmet Ali and the determined resistance of the majority of the Mamelukes, who, rather than have al-AlfI at their head, preferred their present condition; for the enmity of al-Bardisi had not subsided, and he commanded the voice of most of the other beys. In pursuance of the above plan, a squadron under Salih Pasha, shortly before appointed high admiral, arrived at Alexandria on the 1st of July 1806 with 3000 regular troops and a successor to Mehemet Ali, who was to receive the pashalik of Salonica. This wily chief professed his willingness to obey the commands of the Porte, but stated that his troops, to whom he owed a vast sum of money, opposed his departure. He induced the ulemg to sign a letter, praying the sultan to revoke the command for reinstating the beys, persuaded the chiefs of the Albanian troops to swear allegiance to him, and sent 2000 purses contributed by them to Constantinople. Al-Alfi was at that time besieging Damanhur, and he gained a signal victory over the pashas troops; but the dissensions of the beys destroyed their last chance of a return to power. Al-Alfi and his partisans were unable to pay the sum promised to the Porte; Salih Pasha received plenipotentiary powers from Constantinople, in consequence of the letter from the ulema; and, on the condition of Mehmet Alis paying 4000 purses to the Porte, it was decided that he should continue in his post, and the reinstatement of the beys was abandoned. Fortune continued to favor the pasha. In. the following month al-BardisI died, aged forty-eight years; and soon after, a scarcity of provisions excited the troops of al-Alfi to revolt. That hey very reluctantly raised the siege of Damanhur, being in daily expectation of the arrival of an English army; and at the village of Shubra-ment he was attacked by a sudden illness, and died on January 30, 1807, at the age of fifty-five. Thus was the pasha relieved of his two most formidable enemies; and shortly after he defeated Shahin Bey, with the loss to the latter of his artillery and baggage and 300 men killed or taken prisoners.

    On March 17, 1807 a British fleet appeared off Alexandria, having on board nearly 5000 troops, under the command of General A. Mackenzie Fraser; and the place, The being disaffected towards Mehmet Ali, opened its British gates to them. Here they first heard of the death expedition of al-Alfi, upon whose co-operation they had founded their chief hopes of success; and they immediately despatched messengers to his successor and to the other beys, inviting them to Alexandria. The British resident, Major Missett, having represented the importance of taking Rosetta and Rahmanieh,to secure supplies for Alexandria, General Fraser, with the concurrence of the admiral, Sir John Duckworth, detached the 31st regiment and the Chasseurs Britanniques, accompanied by some field artillery under Major-General Wauchope and Brigadier-General Meade, on this service; and these troops entered Rosetta without encountering any opposition; but as soon as they had dispersed among the narrow streets, the garrison opened a deadly fire on them from the latticed windows and the roofs of the houses. They effected a retreat on Aboukir and Alexandria, after a very heavy loss of 185 killed and 281 wounded, General Wauchope and three officers being among the former, and General Meade and nineteen officers among the latter. The heads of the slain were fixed on stakes on each side of the road crossing the Ezbekia in Cairo.

    Mehmet Ali, meanwhile, was conducting an expedition against the beys in Upper Egypt, and he had defeated them near Assiut, when he heard of the arrival of the British.
    In great alarm lest the beys should join them, especially as they were far north of his position, he immediately sent messengers to his rivals, promising to comply with all their demands if they should join in. expelling the invaders; and this proposal being agreed to, both armies marched towards Cairo on opposite sides of the river.

    To return to the unfortunate British expedition. The possession of Rosetta being deemed indispensable, Brigadier-Generals Sir William Stewart and Oswald were despatched thither with 2500 men. For thirteen days a cannonade of the town was continued without effect; and on April 20, news having come in from the advanced guard at Hamad of large reinforcements to the besieged, General Stewart was compelled to retreat; and a dragoon was despatched to Lieutenant-colonel Macleod, commanding at Hamad, with orders to fall back. The messenger, however, was unable to penetrate to the spot; and the advanced guard, consisting of a detachment of the 31st, two companies of the 78th, one of the 35th, and De Rolls egiment, with a picquet of dragoons, the whole mustering 733 men, was surrounded, and, after a gallant resistance, the hurvivors, who had expended all their ammunition, became prisoners of war. General Stewart regained Alexandria with the remainder of his force, having lost, in killed, wounded and missing, nearly 900 men. Some hundreds of British heads were now eposed on stakes in Cairo, and the prisoners were marched between these mutilated remains of their countrymen.

    The beys became divided in their wishes, one party being desirous of co-operating with the British, the other with the pasha. These delays proved ruinous to their cause; and General Fraser, despairing of their assistance, evacuated Alexandria on September 14. From that date to the spring of 1811 the beys from time to time relinquished certain of their demands; the pasha on his part granted them what before had been withheld; the province of the Fayum, and part of those of Giza and Beni-Suef, were ceded to Shahin; and a great portion of the Said, on the condition of paying the land-tax, to the others. Many of them took up their abode in Cairo, but tranquillity was not secured; several times they met the pashas forces in battle and once gained a signal victory. Early in the year I 811, the preparations for an expedition against the Wahhbis in Arabia being complete, all the Mameluke beys then in Cairo were invited to the ceremony of investing Mehmet Ali's favorite son, Tuslin, with a pelisse and the command of the army. As on the former occasion, the unfortunate Mamelukes fell into the snare. On the 1st of March, Shahin Bey and the other chiefs (one only excepted) repaired with their retinues to the citadel, and were courteously received by the pasha. Having taken coffee, they formed in procession, and, preceded and followed by the pashas troops, slowly descended the steep and narrow road leading to the great gate of the citadel; but as soon as the Mamelukes arrived at the gate it was suddenly closed before them. The last of those to leave before the gate was shut were Albanians under Salih Kush. To these troops their chief now made known the pashas orders to massacre all the Mamelukes within the citadel; therefore, having returned Final by another way, they gained the summits of the walls massacre and houses that hem in the road in which the Mameof the lukes were confined, and some stationed themselves upon the eminences of the rock through which that road is partly cut. Thus securely placed, they began a heavy fire on their victims; and immediately the troops who closed the procession, and who had the advantage of higher ground, followed their example. Of the betrayed chiefs, many were laid low in a few moments; some, dismounting, and throwing off their outer robes, vainly sought, sword in hand, to return, and escape by some other gate. The few who regained the summit of the citadel experienced the same fate as the rest, for no quarter was given. Four hundred and seventy Mamelukes entered the citadel; and of these very few, if any, escaped. One of these is said to have been a bey. According to some, he leapt his horse from the ramparts, and alighted uninjured, though the horse was killed by the fall; others say that he was prevented from joining his comrades, and discovered the treachery while waiting without the gate. He fled and made his way to Syria. This massacre was the signal for an indiscriminate slaughter of the Mamelukes throughout Egypt, orders to this effect being transmitted to every governor; and in Cairo itself the houses of the beys were given over to the soldiery. During the two following days the pasha and his son TUsun rode about the streets and tried to stop the atrocities; but order was not restored until 500 houses had been completely pillaged. The heads of the beys were sent to Constantinople.

    A remnant of the Mamelukes fled to Nubia, and a tranquillity was restored to Egypt to which it had long been unaccustomed.

    In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehmet Ali, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia. Here the want of provisions forced them to evacuate the place; a few who surrendered were beheaded, and the rest went farther south and built the town of New D,ongola (correctly Dunkulah), where the venerable Ibrahim Bey died in 1816, at the age of eighty. As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.
     
  2. blabla

    blabla Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    very educational. flm. te pakten doli nji ka ne shqipot i famshem...

    *edit* and successful!
     
  3. kastriot

    kastriot Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Ibrahim Pasha


    Ibrahim Pasha (1789 - November 10, 1848),
    He was born in his father's native town, Kavala. During his father's struggle to establish himself in Egypt, Ibrahim, then sixteen years of age, was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman capitan pasha (admiral), but when Mehmet Ali was recognized as pasha, and had defeated the English expedition under General AM Fraser, he was allowed to return to Egypt. When Mehmet Ali went to Arabia to prosecute the war against the Wahhabis in 1813, Ibrahim was left in command in Upper Egypt. He continued the war with the broken power of the Mamelukes, whom he suppressed. In 1816 he succeeded his brother Tusun in command of the Egyptian forces in Arabia.

    Mehmet Ali had already begun to introduce European discipline into his army, and Ibrahim had probably received some training, but his first campaign was conducted more in the old Asiatic style than his later operations. The campaign lasted two years, an(l terminated in the destruction of the Wahhabis as a political power. Ibrahim landed at Yembo, the port of Medina, on September 30, 1816. The holy cities had been recovered from the Wahhabis, and Ibrahim's task was to follow them into the desert of Nejd and destroy their fortresses. Such training as the Egyptian troops had received, and their artillery, gave them a marked superiority in the open field. But the difficulty of crossing the desert to the Wahhabi stronghold of Deraiya, some 400 miles east of Medina, and the courage of their opponents, made the conquest a very arduous one. Ibrahim displayed great energy and tenacity, sharing all the hardships of his army, and never allowing himself to be discouraged by failure. By the end of September 1818 he had forced the Wahhabi leader to surrender, and had taken Deraiya, which he ruined.

    On December 11, 1819 he made a triumphal entry into Cairo. After his return he gave effective support to the Frenchman, Colonel Sève (Suleiman Pasha), who was employed to drill he army on the European model. Ibrahim set an example by submitting to he drilled as a recruit. When in 1824 Mehmet Ali was appointed governor of the Morea by the sultan, who desired his help against the insurgent Greeks, he sent Ibrahim with a squadron and an army of 17,000 men. The expedition sailed on the foth of July 1824, but was for some months unable to do more than come and go between Rhodes and Crete. The fear of the Greek fire ships stopped his way to the Morea. When the Greek sailors mutinied from want of pay, he was able to land at Modon on February 26, 1825. He remained in the Morea till the capitulation of October 1, 1828 was forced on him by the intervention of the Western powers.

    Ibrahim's operations in the Morea were energetic and ferocious. He easily defeated the Greeks in the open field, and though the siege of Missolonghi proved costly to his own troops and to the Turks who operated with him, he brought it to a successful termination on April 24, 1826. The Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, and in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt. These measures of repression aroused great indignation in Europe, and led first to the intervention of the English, French and Russian squadrons (see battle of Navarino), and then to the landing of a French expeditionary force. By the terms of the capitulation of October 1, 1828, Ibrahim evacuated the country.

    It is fairly certain that the Turkish government, jealous of his power, had laid a plot to prevent him and his troops from returning to Egypt. English officers who saw him at Navarino describe him as short, grossly fat and deeply marked with smallpox. His obesity did not cause any abatement of activity when next he took the field. In. 1831, his father's quarrel with the Porte having become flagrant, Ibrahim was sent to conquer Syria. He carried out his task with truly remarkable energy. He took Acre after a severe siege on May 27, 1832, occupied Damascus, defeated a Turkish army at Horns on July 8, defeated another Turkish army at Beilan on July 29, invaded Asia Minor, and finally routed the grand vizier at Konia on December 21. The convention of Kutaiah on May 6 left Syria for a time in the hands of Mehemet Ali. Ibrahim was undoubtedly helped by Colonel Sève arid the European officers in his army, but his intelligent docility to their advice, as well as his personal hardihood audI energy, compare most favourably with the sloth, ignorance and arrogant conceit of the Turkish generals opposed to him. He is entitled to full credit for the diplomatic judgment and tact he showed in securing the support of the inhabitants, whom he protected and whose rivalries he utilized.
    After the campaign of 1832 and 1833 Ibrahim remained as governor in Syria. He might perhaps have administered successfully, but the exactions he was compelled to enforce by his father soon dined the popularity of his government and provoked revolts. In 1838 the Porte felt strong enough to renew the struggle, and war broke out once more. Ibrahim won his last victory for his father at Nezib on June 24, 1839. But Great Britain and Austria intervened to preserve the integrity of Turkey.

    Their squadrons cut his communications by sea with Egypt, a general revolt isolated him in Syria, and he was finally compelled to evacuate the country in February 1841. Ibrahim spent the rest of his life in peace, but his health was ruined. In 1846 he paid a visit to western Europe, where he was received with some respect and a great deal of curiosity. When his father became imbecile in 1848 he held the regency till his own death on the 10th of November 1848.

    See Edouard Gouin, L'Egypte au XIX' siècle' (Paris, 1847); Aimé Vingtrinier, Soliman-Pasha (Colonel Sève) (Paris, 1886). A great deal of unpublished material of the highest interest with regard to Ibrahim's personality and his system in Syria is preserved in the British Foreign Office archives; for references to these see Cambridge Mod. Hist. x. 852, bibliography to chap. xvii.
     
  4. blabla

    blabla Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Ekziston nje publikim ne anglisht i keti libri?

    (shqip te lutem!)
     
  5. eM

    eM Paper Moon

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Kastriot, I ben dot nje permledhje ne shqip ketyre dy artikujve?
    Jo te gjate thjesht nja 5-6 fjali?

    faleminderit
     
  6. blendiys

    blendiys Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Kastriot!,ketu diskutohet Shqip
     
  7. ilirjan

    ilirjan Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Ne nje leter qe Mehmet Aliu i dergon Ali Pash Tepelenes i thote;
    - Mjaft me krime(vrasje) ndaj popullit tone, (ali pashe Tepelena priste koka ne ate kohe)
    pergjigjet Ali Pasha;
    - Ske gabim ti Mehmet, se ti atje ne Egjypt vret nje Jevg dhe frikson 1 milion jevgj te tjere,
    kurse une duhet te vras 100 shqiptare dhe te frikesoj nje.
     
  8. Odea

    Odea Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Hahahaha....cfare pergjigje mi none.
    Mire e ka thone i shkreti, po prape se prape ska pse ti frikesoje shqiptaret por ti marri me te mire (faktikisht, me ato mendje qe kishin ata, asnje nuk kenaqej) pasi frika nuk sjell gje, vetem shkaterrim te paevitueshem.

    Liri, na thuj noi fakt tjeter interesant se pertova (edhe skam kohe te them te drejten) ti lexoj ato artikujt qe kishte postuar kastrioti (sorry kastriot, nothing against you /pf/images/graemlins/smile.gif ).

    Une per vete nuk mbaj mend asgje lidhur me Mehmet Ali dhe Ali Pashe Tepelenen dhe kur them asgje, i meant it, asgje. Te gjitha ato qe patem mesuar ne 8-vjecare me kane ikur nga truri plotesisht.
    Kush do na e beje nje permbledhje te shkurter te historise se tyre? Thjesht 3-4 fjali...
    Nje kiss per ata qe marrin iniciativen :kiss: /pf/images/graemlins/laugh.gif


    Odea :wave: :book:
     
  9. kastriot

    kastriot Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Propaganda greke, kundrejt Ali Pashe Tepelenes, qe per fat te keq eshte pervetsuar edhe nga disa shqiptaruce, nuk ka aspak te beje me te vertetat historike.
    Sigurisht qe Aliu nuk mund te ishte me i mire se mbreterit e atehershem te Evropes pra edhe ai do te perdorte forcen per te mbajtur pushtetitn e tij, por te njejten gje, me metoda me barbare, benin edhe mbreterit Evropiane dhe te tjere si ata neper bote. Ali Pashe Tepelena punonte dhe luftonte per konsolidimin dhe perparimin e vendit te tij dhe nuk bente luftera koloniale si shume ne Evropen e atehershme.
     
  10. ilirjan

    ilirjan Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Ja si shkruajne per Ali Pashen librat e historise ne shkolla (ketu ne Greqi)

    Tekstualisht;

    Ali Pasha ishte Turk dhe luftoi kundra Grekeve,
    pastaj u vra nga Turqit . :confused: :mad:
     
  11. kastriot

    kastriot Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Ali Pasha Tepelena

    "born 1744, Tepelenë, Albania, Ottoman Empire
    died Feb. 5 [Jan. 24, Old Style], 1822, Janina, Ottoman Empire [now Ioánnina, Gr.]


    byname Lion of Janina
    Albanian brigand who, became pasha, or provincial governor, of Janina from 1788. He extended his capricious rule within the Ottoman Empire over much of Albania and Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, and the Morea.

    His father, Veli, bey of Tepelenë, died a poor man when Ali was 14. His mother, Khamco, formed a brigand band to restore the political and material fortunes of the family, and Ali became a notorious brigand leader. After service with the pasha of Negroponte (Euboea), he joined the wealthy pasha of Delvino, whose daughter he married in 1768. Becoming lieutenant to the derbend-pasha of Rumelia, he policed the highroads, enriched himself, and sent presents to Constantinople. At length he was rewarded with the pashalik of Trikkala and, after a series of intrigues, obtained that of Janina. His son Veli took over Trikkala and later the Morea, while another son, Mukhtar, became pasha of Lepanto. Though constantly thwarted by the Christian Souliots, whom he finally subdued in 1803, Ali obtained control of the Gulf of Arta and took the ports of Butrinto, Preveza, and Vonitsa. He also gained control of the pashaliks of Elbasan, Delvino, Berat, and Valona (Vlore).

    All this time,he increased his wealth and, by intriguing with Greeks and Albanians, extended his authority over beys and townships. Though appointed viceroy of Rumelia, he repeatedly failed to carry out the orders of the Ottoman sultan, to whom he sent plausible excuses and many presents. Indeed, he acted as an independent sovereign and was treated as such by the British and French, with whom he intrigued, hoping to establish Janina as a sea power. By 1819 the sultan, Mahmud II, who intended to centralize the government of his empire, was determined to remove Ali and sanctioned his assassination. Ali tried to save himself by his old methods of intrigue, and extortion but, deserted by his sons and allies, was finally shot down."

    Copyright © 1994-2003 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc
     
  12. Le_Routard

    Le_Routard Forumium maestatis

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Me duket sikur po ngatarrehoen Mehmet Aliu dhe Ali Pash Tepelena....

    Dhe meqe ra llafi mercenaret shqiptar kan qene shume me fame ne boten arabe. Forca e tyre fizike, guximi dhe barbaria ishin shume te 'vyera' ne ate kohe. Tunisia u clirua me ndihmen e shqiptareve, te cilet pasi munden spanjollet ngriten nje kull me kokat e tyre, ishin reth 20000...
     
  13. kastriot

    kastriot Primus registratum

    Re: Mehmet Ali Pasha(Shqiptari nga Kavalla qe u be mbret i Egjyptit)

    Mehmet Aliu nuk ka se si te ngaterrohet me Ali Pashe Tepelenen.
    Sa per vendet e Maghrebit lexo:


    The Pirate: Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa (c.1466-1546)

    Grand Admiral of the Turkish fleet and 'King1 of Algiers...
    "The founder of the family was Yakub, a Roumeliot, probably of Albanian blood..." (-Enc. Britannica, llth ed.)

    Of his brother, Arouj Barbarossa:
    "Having, by his success in piracy on the coast of Barbary, made himself master of 12 galleys...he rendered himself so formidible, that...the ruler of the country about Algiers, called in_ his assistance against the Spaniards. Being admitted into Algiers he caused (the ruler) to be strangled...and himself proclaimed king." (-Enc. Americana, 1829-54, p. 561)
    Of his grandson, Arnaut Mami:
    Cervantes, the author of 'Don Quixote1 (Part 1, Chapters 39 & 41), was captured (1571) by Arnaut Mami, "a grandson of the famous pirate (Khair) Barbarossa... Arnaut Mami who led the attack on the galley 'Sol'...was an Albanian by birth."
    (-Predmore, pp. 74 & 83)
    "Ekrem Rechid wrote of him (Khair), "he saw the earth, the entire earth with its continents, its seas, its coasts and its vast expanses of desert, and he dreamed of a wonderful empire which could stretch all the way from the East to the West - to the West, beyond the ocean, and the New World. He dreamed of populating the New World with virile men and of planting there his Standard and his Religion. He dreamed of conquering the Indies and of reaching China...1 This poetic conception of the great Kheir-ed-Din is, perhaps, not so far removed from the truth. Yet it is also true that he pursued his objectives (whatever they may ultimately have been) in a pragmatic fashion.'
    (-Bradford, p. 124)
    1543. "From this time he seems to have declined active service, and to have given himself up to a voluptuous life among his female captives, until the age of 80, when he died, ...With the ferocity of a Turk and a corsair, he possessed some generous sentiments, and obtained a character for honor and fidelity in his engagements." (-Enc. Americana, 1829-54, p. 561)

    "In Turkey he is the subject of many children's books, and he often appears in cartoon magazines where he features as a cross between a Turkish Francis Drake and Robin Hood... His life violent, his death peaceful, and his achievements extraordinary, the Turkish annals for the year 1546 records simply 'The king of the Sea is dead1." (-Bradford, p. 207)

    James Pandeli: Oh Albania my poor Albania

    Kastriot, te lutem, kjo te jete hera e fundit qe poston shkrime kaq te gjata ne anglisht.
    Forumi eshte per shqiptare dhe si te tille diskutojme ne shqip. Te lutem, permbaju rregullores!
     

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